Chapter 007, State–Space Representation

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Employee acting under authority of license — Conditions — Limitations. The list shall be submitted to the commissioner annually and kept current by reporting all changes, deletions, or additions within thirty days after the change, deletion, or addition occurred. Each list shall be retained by the self-service storage insurance producer for a period of three years from submission; and.

A self-service storage insurance producer is responsible for, and must supervise, all actions of its employees related to the offering, sale, or solicitation of self-service storage insurance.

The conduct of an employee is the same as the conduct of the self-service storage insurance producer for purposes of this chapter. Each self-service storage insurance producer shall identify the employee who is the manager or direct supervisor at each location in the employee list that it submits under subsection 1 d of this section. Details of the program must be submitted to the commissioner, along with the license application, for approval prior to use, and resubmitted for approval of any changes prior to use. This training program shall meet the following minimum standards:.

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Citing Literature. Volume , Issue C10 15 October Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Journal list menu Journal. Log in with your society membership Log in with AGU. Lower charge acceptance when above 70 percent SOC and self-discharge that increases when the battery gets warm toward the end of charge are contributing factors for the low CE.

All battery chemistry systems provide unique CE values that vary with charge rates and temperature. Also, the age has a considerable impact on CE. Precise measurements on Coulombic efficiency provides an excellent method of characterizing the essential aspects of Li-Ion battery cells and performance providing very quick answers with reasonably small samples. It enables technologies to be ranked by their Coulombic efficiency and is particularly useful as a lab tool for comparing the effects of alternative materials on cell performance.

Internal resistance: the internal resistance of the battery is affected by the following factors: conductor resistance, electrolyte resistance, ionic mobility, separator efficiency, reactive rates at the electrodes, and concentration polarization, temperature effects and changes in SOC. When a battery fails, it is typically since it has built up enough internal resistance that it can no longer supply a useful amount of power to an external load, according to the maximum power transfer between the source and the load, as is stated in [ 15 ].

The actual ageing process results in a gradual reduction in Li-Ion battery capacity over time. Moreover, an alternative measure of the battery life cycle is related to the battery cell internal resistance. In this case the life cycle is defined as the number of cycles the battery can perform before its internal resistance increases by an agreed amount usually 1.

Insulation resistance: it is well described in [ 15 ].

The BMS hardware devices consisting of high voltage components, the traction battery, electrical motor and energy recycle device, the battery charger and its auxiliary device deal with a large current and insulation [ 15 ], thus, insulation issues must be under consideration from the design stage.

The national standard NS According to NS, the insulation state of an EV is evaluated according to the ground insulation resistance of the DC positive and negative bus. Thus, to ensure the insulation security of on-board BMS, it is necessary to detect the insulation resistance and raise an alarm in time. In this subsection, we introduce the same battery terminology from [ 1 ] related to BMS specific terms that characterize the Li-Ion battery architecture and its performance.

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For effectiveness purposes, two or more identical battery cells are connected in different combinations e. Moreover, according to the battery specification design, a certain number of modules are connected to form a battery pack that is placed in a single compartment for thermal management.

An EV might have more than one battery packs placed in an assigned location of the car.

From Differential Equation to State Space Equations [2 Examples]

According to the common assessment standards applied in the BMS field, a battery cell is considered fully charged when its terminal voltage reaches the maximum voltage limit value after being charged a small current level. If the battery terminal voltage value is greater than this limit, a dangerous over-charging operating condition takes place. Similarly, a battery cell is considered fully discharged when its terminal voltage reaches the minimum voltage limit value after being drained at small current levels.

If the battery terminal voltage value is smaller than this limit, a dangerous over-discharging operating condition affects the battery functionality and its life. The capacity of a battery is one of the most important battery selection parameters that is measured in Ampere-hours Ah , defined as the total charge that can be discharged from a fully charged battery under specified conditions. The rated Ah capacity is the nominal capacity of a fully charged new battery under the conditions predefined by the catalogue specifications of the battery, e.

In describing batteries, discharge current is often expressed as a C-rate in order to normalize against battery capacity, which is often very different between batteries. A C-rate is a measure of the rate at which a battery is discharged relative to its maximum capacity. A 1 C rate means that the discharge current will discharge the entire battery in 1 hour. For a battery with a capacity of Ampere-hours, this equates to a discharge current of Amps.

A 5 C rate for this battery would be Amps, and a 0. In [ 1 ], according to the U. The SOC of the battery is an essential internal parameter of BMS that provides an important feedback about the state of health of the battery SOH and its safe operation. The SOC is a critical condition parameter for battery management system BMS , often affected by its operating conditions such as load current and temperature; consequently, an accurate estimation of SOC is very important, since it is the key issue for the healthy and safe operation of batteries.

The actual operating life of the battery is affected by the charging and discharging rates, DOD, and by the temperature. The higher the DOD is the shorter will be the life cycle. To attain a higher life cycle, a larger battery is required to be used for a lower DOD during normal operating conditions. The BMS hardware and software components and the safety circuitry incorporated within the battery packs play an important role to monitor and control, to compute and to show continually the safety state, the SOC, SOH, as well as the longevity of the battery.

Related to the battery life, one of the most dangerous situations is the ignition of a Li-Ion battery during overcharging operating conditions, due to the volatility, flammability and entropy changes. Moreover, the repeated over-discharging cycles significantly reduce the battery cell capacity due to irreversible chemical reactions. Consequently, the need to constantly monitor and control the Li-Ion battery internal states and parameters validates once more the integration of BMS inside the EVs architecture.

Whenever any abnormal conditions happen, such as self-discharge leakage current through the insulation resistance of the battery, well-known as ground insulation resistances of the negative and positive bus of BMS R n and R p , respectively. In addition, any time when an over-voltage or overheating operating conditions are identified, the BMS should notify the user in a very short time, and also performs the preset correction procedures [ 14 ].

In the absence of a measurement battery SOC sensor we are focused to identify some of direct SOC measurement methods, such as those summarized in [ 3 , 7 ], as follows:. A laboratory method for determining SOC consists of completely discharge a cell, recording discharged ampere-hours, to determine its remaining available capacity. Chemistry-dependent methods for other chemistries, e. Open-circuit voltage OCV measurements. However, long periods of battery inactivity sometimes hours must occur before the terminal voltage approaches OCV.

This approach consists of modeling the cell electrical dynamics at the molecular level, taking into consideration the various processes that occur within the cell.

Applying this method measures the cell impedances over a wide range of AC frequencies at different SOCs, and the model parameter values are found applying the well-known least-squares errors LSE fitting method to measure the impedance values. In this method, a high-valued capacitor or voltage source is used to represent the battery OCV, connected in series with the internal resistance of the battery, and one, two or three RC parallel polarization cells, such as the second order 2RC EMC battery model proposed in the case study, for which the battery cell dynamics are described in the next Section 2.

Both linear- and nonlinear circuit models may be used to model the dynamics of the Li-Ion battery cell.